Company Description and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Company Description and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Company Description and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Nature of Business
Ocuphire is a clinical-stage ophthalmic biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing therapies for the treatment of refractive and retinal eye disorders. Ocuphire’s pipeline currently includes two small molecule product candidates targeting several of such indications. The Company’s lead product candidate, Nyxol® Eye Drops (“Nyxol”), is a once-daily eye drop formulation of phentolamine mesylate designed to reduce pupil diameter and improve visual acuity. The Company’s second product candidate, APX3330, is a twice-a-day oral tablet designed to target multiple pathways relevant to retinal and choroidal (the vascular layer of the eye) diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (“DR”) and diabetic macular edema (“DME”) which, if left untreated, can result in permanent visual acuity loss and eventual blindness. The Company has also in-licensed APX2009 and APX2014, which are second-generation product candidates and analogs of APX3330.
The Company has sustained operating losses since inception and expects such losses to continue indefinitely until a sustained revenue source is realized. Management plans to continue financing the Company’s operations primarily through additional issuances of the Company’s equity and debt securities. If adequate funds are not available, the Company may be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate part or all of its research and development programs.
Reverse Merger with Rexahn
On June 17, 2020, Ocuphire, Rexahn Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Rexahn”), Razor Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of Rexahn (“Merger Sub”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, as amended on June 29, 2020 (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which, among other things, and subject to the satisfaction or waiver of certain conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub would merge with and into Ocuphire, with Ocuphire continuing as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Rexahn and the surviving corporation of the merger (the “Merger”). The Merger closed on November 5, 2020. Upon completion of the Merger, Rexahn changed its name to Ocuphire Pharma, Inc. and changed its ticker symbol on the Nasdaq Capital Market to “OCUP”.
The Company’s headquarters is located in Farmington Hills, Michigan.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company has experienced, and will likely continue to experience, delays and disruptions in our clinical trials, as well as interruptions in our manufacturing, supply chain, shipping and research and development operations.
The Company’s plans for further testing or clinical trials may be further impacted by the continuing effects of COVID-19. The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to evolve. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may further impact our business and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the effect of the pandemic on our suppliers and distributors and the global supply chain, the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the U.S. and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the U.S. and other countries to contain and treat the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic may also continue to impact our business as a result of employee illness, school closures, and other community response measures.
The COVID-19 pandemic may also impact the Company’s ability to secure additional financing. Although the Company cannot estimate the length or gravity of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak at this time, if the pandemic continues, it may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of future operations, financial position, and liquidity in for fiscal year 2022 and beyond.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting standards generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
All of the share and per share amounts presented were adjusted, on a retroactive basis, to reflect the exchange of the shares of Ocuphire pre-Merger (“Private Ocuphire”) into 1.0565 shares of the Company (the “Exchange Ratio”), except for par value and share authorizations of Private Ocuphire for periods presented prior to the Merger.
On December 31, 2021, the Company merged its wholly owned subsidiary, OcuSub Inc, with and into the Company, with the Company remaining as the surviving entity. The merger of the Company’s wholly owned subsidiary did not have a financial impact to the periods presented. Upon close of this merger, the Company did not have any remaining entities that required consolidation for financial statement reporting purposes.
The Company’s ability to continue operating as a going concern is contingent upon, among other things, its ability to secure additional financing and to achieve and maintain profitable operations. The Company plans to issue additional equity instruments and possibly debt to finance operating and working capital requirements. While the Company expects to obtain the additional financing that is needed, there is no assurance that the Company will be successful in obtaining the necessary funding for future operations. These factors raise substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties.
Common Stock Valuation
Prior to the close of the Merger, due to the absence of an active market for the Private Ocuphire’s common stock, the Company utilized methodologies in accordance with the framework of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants’ Technical Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, to estimate the fair value of Private Ocuphire common stock. The valuation methodology included estimates and assumptions that required the Company’s judgment. These estimates and assumptions included a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector, and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an initial public offering (“IPO”), reverse merger or sale. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations resulted in different fair values of common stock at each valuation date.
For the valuation of equity awards granted in October 2020 and September 2020, the Company used a contemporaneous third-party valuation of $8.76 and $7.89 per share, respectively. For the valuation of equity awards granted in April 2020 and June 2020, the Company applied a straight-line calculation using the contemporaneous third-party valuations of $1.74 per share as of March 31, 2020 and $9.54 per share as of June 18, 2020 to determine the fair value of Private Ocuphire common stock. Using the benefit of hindsight, the Company determined that the straight-line calculation would provide the most reasonable conclusion for the valuation of the Company’s common stock on these interim dates between valuations because the Company did not identify any single event or series of events that occurred during this interim period that would have caused a material change in fair value. Based on this calculation, the Company assessed the fair value of its common stock for awards granted in April 2020 and June 2020 at $2.33 and $8.65 per share, respectively.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Operating segments are components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available and is evaluated regularly by the Company’s chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer views the Company’s operations and manages its business in one operating segment, which is the business of development and commercialization of products related to vision performance and health. Accordingly, the Company has a single reporting segment.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of deposit to be cash equivalents.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents. The Company’s cash is held by two long-standing financial institutions in the United States. Amounts on deposit may at times exceed federally insured limits. Management believes that the financial institutions are financially sound, and accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to the financial institutions. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had deposits that exceeded federally insured amounts by approximately $24.0 million.
The Company determines the appropriate classification of its investments in debt and equity securities at the time of purchase and are recorded on a settlement date basis. The Company’s investments are comprised of equity securities, which in accordance with the fair value hierarchy described below are recorded at fair value using Level l inputs on the consolidated balance sheets. Subsequent changes in fair values are recorded in other (expense) income, net on the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. The Company classifies investments available to fund current operations as current assets on its consolidated balance sheets. The Company did not recognize any impairments on its investments to date through December 31, 2021.
The Company follows the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The guidance provides a five-step model to determine how revenue is recognized. The Company has entered into license agreements which have revenue recognition implications. (See Note 10 – Collaboration License Agreements.)
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the contracts with a customer; (ii) determination of the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including potential constraints on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated stand-alone selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in ASC 606. Performance obligations may include license rights, development services, and services associated with regulatory submission and approval processes. Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under an arrangement and the period over which the Company expects to complete its performance obligations under the arrangement. If the Company cannot reasonably estimate when its performance obligations are either completed or become inconsequential, then revenue recognition is deferred until the Company can reasonably make such estimates. Revenue is then recognized over the remaining estimated period of performance using the cumulative catch-up method.
As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. The Company uses key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success. The Company allocates the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation.
Licenses of intellectual property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer, and the customer can use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
Milestone payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone (such as a regulatory submission) is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company, such as approvals from regulators, are not considered probable of being achieved until such contingency occurs (such as receipt of those approvals). When the Company’s assessment of probability of achievement changes and variable consideration becomes probable, any additional estimated consideration is allocated to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised goods or service underlying each performance obligation and recorded in collaborations revenue based upon when the customer obtains control of each element.
Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (a) when the related sales occur, or (b) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses (“G&A”) consist primarily of personnel-related costs, including salaries and stock-based compensation costs, for personnel in functions not directly associated with research and development activities. Other significant costs include legal fees relating to intellectual property and corporate matters, professional fees for accounting and tax services, settlement costs with third parties and other services provided by business consultants.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses (“R&D”) consist of costs incurred in performing research and development activities, including compensation for research and development employees and consultants, costs associated with preclinical studies and clinical trials, regulatory activities, manufacturing activities to support clinical activities, license fees, fees paid to external service providers that conduct certain research and development, and an allocation of R&D related overhead expenses.
Acquired In‑Process Research and Development Expenses
The Company includes costs to acquire or in‑license product candidates as acquired in‑process research and development expenses (“IPR&D”). These costs are immediately expensed provided that the payments do not also represent processes or activities that would constitute a “business” as defined under GAAP or provided that the product candidate has not achieved regulatory approval for marketing, and absent obtaining such approval, has no alternative future use. Royalties owed on future sales of any licensed product will be expensed in the period the related revenues are recognized. See Note 8 – Apexian Sublicense Agreement.
Other (Expense) Income, net
Other (expense) income, net reflected in this line item includes payments made by the Company in connection with the Contingent Value Rights Agreement discussed further below with former Rexahn shareholders. In addition, Other (expense) income, net includes interest earned from cash and cash equivalent investments, realized and unrealized gains (losses) from equity investments and reimbursements in connection with grants and other sources.
The Company accounts for share‑based compensation in accordance with the provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC 718”), Compensation — Stock Compensation. Accordingly, compensation costs related to equity instruments granted are recognized at the grant‑date fair value. The Company records forfeitures when they occur. Share‑based compensation arrangements to non‑employees are accounted for in accordance with the applicable provisions of ASC 718.
The Company issued Series A Warrants in connection with the Pre-Merger Financing (see Note 9 – Pre-Merger Financing) and assumed Rexahn warrants issued prior to the Merger. The Company accounts for these warrants as a liability while outstanding at fair value during periods when certain provisions preclude equity accounting treatment for these instruments. Additionally, issuance costs associated with the warrants classified as liabilities are expensed as incurred and reflected as interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. The change in fair value of the warrant liabilities while outstanding were recognized as a component of the fair value change in derivative and warrant liabilities line item in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Premium Conversion Derivatives
The Company evaluates all conversion and redemption features contained in a debt instrument to determine if there are any embedded derivatives that require separation from the host debt instrument. An embedded derivative that requires separation is bifurcated from its host debt instrument and a corresponding discount to the host debt instrument is recorded. The discount is amortized and recorded to interest expense over the term of the host debt instrument using the straight-line method which approximates the effective interest method. The embedded derivative is accounted for separately on a fair market value basis while outstanding. The Company records the fair value changes of a separated embedded derivative at each reporting period in the fair value change in derivative and warrant liabilities line item in the accompanying consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. The Company determined that the redemption features under the convertible notes, while they were outstanding, qualified as embedded derivatives and were separated from their debt hosts.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows accounting guidance that emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. Fair value is defined as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value measurements are defined on a three-level hierarchy:
As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the fair values of cash and cash equivalents, prepaid and other assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and short-term loan approximated their carrying values because of the short-term nature of these assets or liabilities. The estimated fair value of the Company’s convertible notes while outstanding were based on amortized cost which was deemed to approximate fair value. The fair value of the investments, while outstanding, were based on observable Level 1 inputs in the form of quoted market prices from a major stock exchange. The fair value of the warrant liabilities and premium conversion derivatives, while outstanding, were based on cash flow models discounted at current implied market rates evidenced in recent arms-length transactions representing expected returns by market participants for similar instruments and were based on Level 3 inputs. There were no transfers between fair value hierarchy levels during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
The fair value of financial instruments measured on a recurring basis is as follows (in thousands):
The following table provides a roll-forward of investments measured at fair value on a recurring basis using observable level 1 inputs for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
The following table provides a roll-forward of the warrant liabilities and premium conversion derivatives measured at fair value on a recurring basis using unobservable level 3 inputs for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
There were no financial instruments measured on a non-recurring basis for any of the periods presented.
The Company utilizes the liability method of accounting for income taxes as required by ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Currently, there is no provision for income taxes, as the Company has incurred operating losses to date, and a full valuation allowance has been provided on the net deferred tax assets.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, net is recorded at cost and reduced by accumulated depreciation. Depreciation expense is recognized over the estimated useful lives of the assets using the straight-line method. Equipment and furniture are depreciated over a five year estimated useful life. Tangible assets acquired for research and development activities which have alternative use are capitalized and depreciated over the useful life of the acquired asset. Estimated useful lives are periodically reviewed, and when appropriate, changes are made prospectively. When certain events or changes in operating conditions occur, asset lives may be adjusted and an impairment assessment may be performed on the recoverability of the carrying amounts. Maintenance and repairs are charged directly to expense as incurred.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses”. The ASU sets forth a “current expected credit loss” (“CECL”) model which requires the Company to measure all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost and applies to some off-balance sheet credit exposures. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this ASU on January 1, 2023 will have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which, among other things, provides guidance on how to account for contracts on an entity’s own equity. This ASU eliminates the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models for convertible instruments. It also amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions. In addition, this ASU modifies how particular convertible instruments and certain contracts that may be settled in cash or shares impact the diluted EPS computation. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public business entities that meet the definition of a Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filer, excluding entities eligible to be smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC, for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2020-06 on its consolidated financial statements.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832) - Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance, to increase the transparency of government assistance including the disclosure of the types of assistance, an entity’s accounting for the assistance, and the effect of the assistance on an entity’s financial statements. The amendments in this ASU are effective for all entities within their scope for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of Topic 832.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef